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Start Oyster Mushroom Farm | Steps Involved | Oyster Mushroom Cultivation



1. Substrate preparation & sterilization

2. Bed filling

3. Incubation

4. Growing and Harvesting crop

5. Post-harvest operations –Grading, Packaging, Storage 

6. Marketing or distributing or Processing

Selecting space

Consider points

Ideally Cool and Clean Space

Closed space such as room, shed, warehouses

Flow of fresh air 

Low or hi tech

If not as above points manipulate using artificial equipments such as fogger, humidifier, and exhausts

Proper water and electricity supply 

Space or parts required

Mushroom Grow House  [Minimum 10 X 10 Feets]

Working space [Minimum 10 X 10 Feets]

Packaging area [Minimum 10 X 10 Feets]

Water storage 

Growing Substrate

High Yields can be achieved in soybean, wheat, paddy, cotton, tur, urad. Cotton straw.

Sawdust also can be used. However, yield less than straw.


Straw substrate yield = 600 gm/ 1 kg block

Sawdust substrate yield = 300 gm/ 1 kg block 

Substrate Sterilization

1. Chemical sterilization

 It involves soaking of straw in chemical solution of Formalin (125 ml) + Bavistin (7.5 gram per 100 Ltrs of water.

 Fruit bodies raised by such techniques are safe for human consumption as the translocation of the chemical in them is below tolerance limit.

1. Take 200 Ltr. Barrel.

2. Add 100 Ltr or 200 Ltr water.

3. Add bavistin powder as ratio.

4. Add formalin liquid as ratio.

5. Mix and add straw.

6. Close with lid or cover.

7. Keep it for 12 hrs.

8. Pre-soaking is not needed for this method.

2. Steaming

In this method pre-wetted straw (3-4 Hrs) is packed in sacks having pores and then kept in a pasteurization chamber/autoclave/retort at 121 C for few hours.

Temperature of the pasteurization chamber is manipulated with the help of steam through a boiler or electricity. 

Substrate after cooling at room temperature is seeded with spawn. 

The entire process  take 3-5 days. 

Pre-soaking is needed for this method.

3. Boiling 

Can be also called as Hot water treatment.

The substrate after chopping (5-10 cm) is soaked in hot water ( min 100 c) for 2-2.5 hrs.

Hot water treatment makes the hard substrate like maize cobs, stems etc. soft so the growth of Mycelial takes place very easily. 

This method is not suitable on large scale commercial cultivation.

Pre-soaking is not needed for this. 

Seeds or Spawn Selection

Buy spawn from reliable mushroom spawn supplier or laboratory.

Use fresh spawn

Store spawn properly ideally 2-8 degree celcius.

Do  not use spawn if black and green spots are visible.

Take healthy seeds 

Remove the seeds and crack the seeds.

Separate seeds

After sterilization remove straw from steaming chamber or chemical barrel.

After 5-7 Hrs we can bag substrate. Remember steamed or boiled straw needs some more time as it will be hot. We can’t directly put seeds in straw if it’s hot. 

Incubation, Growth, Harvesting

1. Incubate bags at cool place and dark place approx 50 percent darkness.

2. After 15-18 days bags will become whitish. Mycelium will grow.

3. After 18 days water showering can be started. 

4. Shower 3 times water at least and keep humidity high.

5. And pinheads will start to appear on 22-25 days. And will start to grow. 

6. Will become harvestable after 3 days.

7. Turn and cut and separate each mushroom 


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