Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation in India

Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation in India

In India, mushroom cultivation has gained popularity due to its high demand, nutritional value, and relatively low investment requirements. Here are some of the most common types of mushroom cultivation practiced in India:

1. Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus):

   - Button mushrooms are one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms globally and are commonly grown in India as well.

   - They are typically grown in controlled environments, such as mushroom houses or grow rooms, using composted substrates made from materials like wheat straw, paddy straw, and poultry manure.

   - Button mushrooms require specific temperature and humidity conditions for cultivation, typically around 20-24°C and 80-85% humidity.

   - Major cultivation regions in India include Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh.

2. Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.):

   - Oyster mushrooms are popular for their rapid growth, high yield, and adaptability to various substrates.

   - They can be cultivated on a wide range of substrates, including agricultural waste such as wheat straw, rice straw, cotton waste, and sugarcane bagasse.

   - Oyster mushrooms thrive in temperatures ranging from 20-30°C and humidity levels around 70-80%.

   - Oyster mushroom cultivation is widespread across different states in India, including West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra.

3. Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes):

   - Shiitake mushrooms are highly prized for their unique flavor and medicinal properties.

   - They are typically grown on hardwood logs or sawdust-based substrates supplemented with nutrients such as wheat bran or rice bran.

   - Shiitake mushrooms prefer cooler temperatures ranging from 15-25°C and high humidity levels.

   - Although less common than button and oyster mushrooms, shiitake cultivation is practiced in states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim.

4. Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica):

   - Milky mushrooms are tropical mushrooms that thrive in warm and humid conditions.

   - They are cultivated on substrates like paddy straw, cotton waste, or sawdust supplemented with nutrients.

   - Milky mushrooms require temperatures between 25-35°C and high humidity levels (around 85-90%).

   - Cultivation of milky mushrooms is primarily done in southern states such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

5. Paddy Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea):

   - Paddy straw mushrooms are commonly grown in regions where rice cultivation is prevalent.

   - They are cultivated on beds of rice straw, often in open fields or low-cost structures.

   - Paddy straw mushrooms prefer warm temperatures between 25-35°C and high humidity levels (around 80-90%).

   - This type of mushroom is extensively cultivated in states like West Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha.

Different Types of Mushroom Cultivation in India

These are some of the major types of mushroom cultivation practiced in India, each with its specific requirements and cultivation techniques. Additionally, there are niche varieties such as reishi, lion's mane, and enoki mushrooms that are also gaining interest among mushroom cultivators in the country.